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Robotics Powerpoint Presentation

What is robotics

  • The word robotics is used to collectivily define a field in engineering that covers the mimicking of various human characteristics 
  • Sound concepts in many engineering disciplines is needed for working in this field 
  • It find its uses in all aspects of our life

What  Robot can mean? 

  • An automatic industrial machine replacing the human in hazardous work. 
  • An automatic mobile sweeper machine at a modern home. 
  • An automatic toy car for a child to play with. 
  • A machine removing mines in a war field all by itself and many more… 

Robotics

It is a field of Engineering that covers the mimic
king of human behavior. 
Robotics includes the knowledge of Mechanical, Electronics, Electrical & Computer Science Engineering. 

Laws of Robotics 

Asimov's Laws of Robotics: 

  • The term robotics was coined in the 1940s by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov. 
  • A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. 
  • A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such order would conflict with the First Law. 
  • A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. 

WHY ROBOTICS ? 

  • Speed. 
  • It can work hazardous/dangerous 
  • environment. 
  • To perform repetitive task. 
  • Efficiency 
  • Accuracy 
  • Adaptability 

Types of Robot 

  • Wheeled 
  • Legged 
  • Climbing 
  • Flying 

Components of ROBOTS 

  • Structure 
  • Power source 
  • Actuation 
  • Sensing 
  • Manipulation 
  • Locomotion 

Structure 

  • The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain. 
  • The chain is formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles), and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom. 

Power Supply 

  • Suitable power supply is needed to run the motors and associated circuitry 
  • Typical power requirement ranges from 3V to 24V DC 
  • 220V AC supply must be modified to suit the needs of our machine 
  • Batteries can also be used to run robots 

Robots are driven by different motors :- 

  • DC Motors 
  • Stepper Motors 
  • Servo Motors 

DC Motors 

  • As the name suggests, a motor which uses a DC (Direct Current) power 
  • Can run in both directions 
  • Speed Controllable 

Stepper Motors 

  • Used for measured rotation 
  • Can be held at a particular position of the shaft 
  • Ideal for many autonomous robots requiring higher precision 

Servo Motors : 

  • Used in closed loop control systems in which work is the control variable. 
  • An integral feedback device (resolver) or devices (encoder and tachometer) are either incorporated within the servo motor or are remotely mounted, often on the load itself 

ACTUATION 

  • Actuators are the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. 
  • The most popular actuators are electric motors. 

MANIPULATION 

  • Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect. 
  • Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the arm is referred to as a manipulator. 

Some manipulators are: 
  • Mechanical Grippers 
  • Vacuum Grippers 
  • General purpose effectors 

LOCOMOTION 

  • It is concerned with the motion of the robot. 
  • Robot contains different types of drives:- 

Differential drive 

  • Car type 
  • Skid steer drive 
  • Synchronous drive 
  • Pivot drive 
  • Articulated drive 
  • DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE 
  • ACKERMAN DRIVE 
  • SKID STEER DRIVE 
  • SYNCHRONOUS DRIVE 
  • PIVOT DRIVE 

ADVANTAGES 

  • Revolution in Medical science and Health care systems. 
  • New & wide scope in Education & Training. 
  • A good help in Nuclear industry. 
  • Used tremendously in Sports activities. 
  • Play the role of an efficient assistance in Research and Development sciences. 
  • Can very well handle household business. 

FUTURE PROSPECTS 

  • Scientists say that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019 . 
  • Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans. 
  • In 2009, some robots acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own. 
  • The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence has researched on this problem.







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