- The word robotics is used to collectivily define a field in engineering that covers the mimicking of various human characteristics
- Sound concepts in many engineering disciplines is needed for working in this field
- It find its uses in all aspects of our life
What Robot can mean?
- An automatic industrial machine replacing the human in hazardous work.
- An automatic mobile sweeper machine at a modern home.
- An automatic toy car for a child to play with.
- A machine removing mines in a war field all by itself and many more…
Robotics includes the knowledge of Mechanical, Electronics, Electrical & Computer Science Engineering.
Laws of Robotics
Asimov's Laws of Robotics:
- The term robotics was coined in the 1940s by science fiction writer Isaac Asimov.
- A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
- A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such order would conflict with the First Law.
- A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
WHY ROBOTICS ?
- It can work hazardous/dangerous
- To perform repetitive task.
Types of Robot
Components of ROBOTS
- Power source
- The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain.
- The chain is formed of links (its bones), actuators (its muscles), and joints which can allow one or more degrees of freedom.
- Suitable power supply is needed to run the motors and associated circuitry
- Typical power requirement ranges from 3V to 24V DC
- 220V AC supply must be modified to suit the needs of our machine
- Batteries can also be used to run robots
Robots are driven by different motors :-
- DC Motors
- Stepper Motors
- Servo Motors
- As the name suggests, a motor which uses a DC (Direct Current) power
- Can run in both directions
- Speed Controllable
- Used for measured rotation
- Can be held at a particular position of the shaft
- Ideal for many autonomous robots requiring higher precision
Servo Motors :
- Used in closed loop control systems in which work is the control variable.
- An integral feedback device (resolver) or devices (encoder and tachometer) are either incorporated within the servo motor or are remotely mounted, often on the load itself
- Actuators are the "muscles" of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement.
- The most popular actuators are electric motors.
- Robots which must work in the real world require some way to manipulate objects; pick up, modify, destroy, or otherwise have an effect.
- Thus the 'hands' of a robot are often referred to as end effectors, while the arm is referred to as a manipulator.
Some manipulators are:
- Mechanical Grippers
- Vacuum Grippers
- General purpose effectors
- It is concerned with the motion of the robot.
- Robot contains different types of drives:-
- Car type
- Skid steer drive
- Synchronous drive
- Pivot drive
- Articulated drive
- DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE
- ACKERMAN DRIVE
- SKID STEER DRIVE
- SYNCHRONOUS DRIVE
- PIVOT DRIVE
- Revolution in Medical science and Health care systems.
- New & wide scope in Education & Training.
- A good help in Nuclear industry.
- Used tremendously in Sports activities.
- Play the role of an efficient assistance in Research and Development sciences.
- Can very well handle household business.
- Scientists say that it is possible that a robot brain will exist by 2019 .
- Vernor Vinge has suggested that a moment may come when computers and robots are smarter than humans.
- In 2009, some robots acquired various forms of semi-autonomy, including being able to find power sources on their own.
- The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence has researched on this problem.